History Podcasts




The A.E.G. twin engined bombers and was used by the German air service from late in 1916 until the end of the First World War.

The G.I of early 1915 was similar to the B series unarmed reconnaissance aircraft, with the same welded steel fuselage, wooden wing ribs and fabric covering construction. It was powered by two 100hp engines, mounted on struts between the wings close to the fuselage. It was underpowered and only one was built.

It was followed in mid 1915 by the A.E.G. G.II, which was slightly larger, and was powered by two 150hp engines. It could carry 441lb of bombs and around sixteen were built.

Next came the A.E.G. G.III, which introduced balanced control surfaces, 220hp engines and had a 661lb payload. Again a small amount were produced.

The G.IV appeared late in 1916, with the prototype completed in September 1916 and the first production aircraft ready in January 1917. It used the same welded steel tube fuselage and wooden wing ribs as the earlier aircraft, and was mainly fabric covered, but had a plywood skin over the nose. The wings had a fixed centre section and swept-back outer panels that could be detached. They had two 50mm diameter steep tube spars, with a 3ft 8.5in gap between them, and solid wood ribs.

It had two 260hp Mercedes D.IVa engines, giving it another 80hp compared to the G.III. These engines were both more powerful and more reliable than the D.IV engines used on the G.III. The engines were carried on a network of steel struts that were attached to the steel wing spars of the lower wing and were braced to the upper longerons of the fuselage.

It could carry four crew members, and all of the cockpits were connected so the crew could swap places. It was armed with two Parabellum machine guns, both on flexibly mountings - one in the aft cockpit and one in a nose cockpit. It could carry 882lb of bombs, twice the payload of the G.II and a third higher than the G.III, but only with a crew of three. Its main limitation was its poor range with a full bomb load, so it was normally used on short range missions.

The number of aircraft produced is unclear. A.E.G. records show 324 aircraft between January 1917 and October 1918 and known orders reach 320. However many sources give a figure of 500 aircraft, from a total production run for the G series of 550. This may include aircraft produced under licence by Siemens-Schuckert.

The G.IV used the same engines as rival bombers from Gotha and Friedrichshafen, but wasn't as obviously effective as those aircraft, with a lower payload and shorter range. However its increased reliability compensated for this.

The G.IV had two racks for 25lb bombs on the port side of the rear cockpit and one under the floor between the main and rear cockpits. One 50kg bomb could be carried under each of the lower wing and up to three under the fuselage.

The G.IV remained in service from its introduction until the end of the First World War. It was more robust than the Gotha or Friedrichshafen bombers, and was also easier to fly. It entered service in April 1917, quickly replacing the G.III. At first it was used in daylight raids, but these soon had to be abandoned and it was largely used at night. There were never that many in use at any one time - by the end of 1917 there were only 35 in service, and the highest recorded number in service, on 30 June 1918, was only 74. It was used by Kampfgeschwader 1 (based at Etreaux, and supporting the 18th Army). Kampfgeschwader 3 (Ghent, 4th Army), Kampfgeschwader 4 (Guise, 18th Army), Kampfgeschwader 5 (Mouchin, 17th Army) and Kampfgeschwader 7 (La Briquette, 2nd Army), as well as by a number of independent Staffeln.

Late in 1917 the G.IV units moved south and were used for night attacks on Venice, Padua, Verona and Treviso. During this period some aircraft in Kampfgeschwader 4 flew as many as five or six sorties per night, a demonstration of the reliability of the aircraft.

They returned to the Western Front in 1918, and were used as night bombers on that front for the rest of the war. Fifty were still in use in August 1918.

The G.IV was also used as a reconnaissance aircraft, with its range increased by replacing the bomb load with extra fuel.

A number of variants of the G.IV were produced in small numbers.

The G.IVb had an increased span three-bay wing, with another 18ft added to the wing span. It was marginally slower than the standard G.IV but could carry a 2,200lb bomb.

This was followed by the G.IVb-lang, which combined the three-bay wing and a longer fuselage and was powered by two 300hp Basse & Selve BuS.IVa engines. This became the basis of the A.E.G. G.V.

The G.IVk carried a 2cm/ 0.79in Becker cannon in an armoured nose. It was produced in 1918 for use with ground attack forces, especially against tanks, and probably didn't see service although the prototype was sent to the front in December 1917 for service trials. The prototype was followed by an order for five armoured G.IVks, placed in March 1918. The type passed its flight trials in February 1918, and its cannon trials in April, but wasn't used in combat. Four survived to the end of the war and were handed over to the British.

The G.IV was also used for engine experiments, and was tested with 245hp Maybach Mb.IVa engines and 300hp Basse & Selve BuS.IVa engines between September 1917 and March 1918. Neither engine was available in sufficient numbers to be used on production aircraft. Early in 1918 turbo-charged Mercedes engines were tried, but the first prototype was lost in March 1918. An A.E.G. designed turbo-compressor was tested in the summer of 1918, and just before the end of the war an order was placed for twenty more units for combat tests.

Engine: Two Mercedes D.IVa engines
Power: 260hp each
Crew: 3 or 4
Span: 60ft 4.5in
Length: 31ft 9.75in
Height: 12ft 9.5in
Empty weight: 5,291lb
Maximum take-off weight: 8,003lb
Max speed: 103 mph
Climb Rate: 5min to 3,280ft
Service ceiling: 14,765ft
Endurance: 5 hours
Armament: Two 0.31in Parabellum machine guns
Bomb load: 881lb

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War

The Road Home

Want to see over 65 historically significant aircraft in one place? Check out the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, Ontario.

A visit to this museum’s vast exhibition gallery provides a first-hand look at aircraft that have shaped both Canadian and world aviation history. Displays cover early aviation, war planes, bush flying, helicopters, fighter jets, commercial air travel, space exploration and more — with detailed information placards that left my very curious mind very satisfied.

Here are some highlights from my visit in September 2018, presented in rough chronological order by age of aircraft.

Your students will have the chance to determine the colour of the 3D First World War models. Then they can learn about what the planes really looked like and why.

Having some difficulty with Blender? Here's a short video that will help.

The First World War was the first major conflict in which planes were used. Initially aircraft were mainly used in reconnaissance missions. As the war progressed, their role expanded and they began engaging in dogfights and bombing missions. Due to this, a large variety of different aircraft were developed during the First World War.

Ingenium is scanning objects from the national collection and sharing models and printable files of artifacts.

One of the educational activities involves colouring the 3D models of First World War aircraft. Use this instructional video to help you install and use the software Blender™ employed in this activity - and bring a part of the museum to you

A.E.G. G.IV - History

. located in an open cockpit at the nose of the aircraft this man also served as the bombardier. Behind the front gunner and just ahead of the upper wing was the pilot's cockpit. His flight controls consisted of the usual rudder bar and stick, but a "steering wheel," like that in an automobile, was mounted at the top of the stick and was used for deflecting the ailerons. The use of a full wheel, rather than a yoke as in modern aircraft, suggests that several revolutions of the wheel were required to move the ailerons through their full range of deflection. Aircraft response to control inputs must have been sluggish, and the piloting job must have seemed something like a wrestling match. The third crew member was another gunner located in an open cockpit behind the upper wing. His flexible machine gun could be utilized effectively in various quadrants above and to the sides of the aircraft and could also be fired downward and rearward through a sort of inclined tunnel that passed through the inside of the fuselage and opened on the bottom. The rear gunner could accordingly fire, through a limited angular range, at an aircraft attacking from below and to the rear. This feature proved to be a startling and unwelcome discovery to a number of unsuspecting Allied pilots.

The performance of the 8558-pound gross weight Gotha was not spectacular, as can be seen from the data in table I for the slightly [ 50 ] improved Gotha G.V. The maximum speed was only 87 miles per hour, which suggests a cruising speed at 75-percent power of about 78 miles per hour. This cruising speed, coupled with an estimated stalling speed of 56 miles per hour gave the pilot a very narrow speed corridor in which to fly and maneuver the aircraft. The maximum lift-drag ratio of 7.7 seems reasonably high for an aircraft festooned with so many struts, wires, wheels, and other protuberances. The usual load of the Gotha on a London raid consisted of six 110-pound bombs carried externally. The reference sources indicate that more Gothas were lost in flying accidents than in combat with the enemy. Sluggish response to control inputs together with its narrow speed corridor may have contributed to the high accident rate. Many accidents occurred in landing. The fuselage was reportedly weak, probably because of the gun tunnel, and frequently broke in half on a hard landing. All in all, the Gotha does not seem to have been the superb aircraft that its fearsome reputation would suggest. The reality, as with so many other aircraft, does not live up to the legend. Handley Page 0/400 Like the Gotha G.IV, the Handley Page 0/400 illustrated in figure 2.22 was a multibay biplane equipped with two engines mounted between the wings and with a four-wheel main landing gear two wheels were mounted below the lower wing at the location of each of the engine nacelles. The appearance of the British Handley Page bomber, however, was startlingly different from that of the German Gotha. The large gap between the wings, marked wing dihedral angle, and large span of the upper wing as compared with the lower are distinctive features in the appearance of the aircraft. Also in marked contrast to the pusher engine arrangement of the Gotha, the 0/400 employed a tractor configuration. Another distinctive feature, not evident in the photograph, is the tail assembly, which consisted of two horizontal surfaces arranged in a biplane configuration. A single fixed fin, centrally located between the two horizontal surfaces, and two all-moving rudders, also located between the horizontal surfaces but positioned near the tips, comprised the vertical tail surfaces. Horn-balanced ailerons and elevators were utilized to reduce control forces. The wings folded rearward, just outboard of the engines, to a position parallel to the fuselage. This complication was dictated by a requirement that the aircraft fit into a standard-size Royal Air Force. [ 51 ] Figure 2.22 - British Handley Page 0/400 twin-engine bomber 1916-17. [USAF via Martin Copp]

. hangar. Apparently, the authorities responsible for aircraft procurement thought it more cost effective to complicate and perhaps compromise the aircraft than to build new hangars.

The crew of the Handley Page 0/400 usually consisted of four men. A gunner-bombardier, located in the nose of the aircraft, had two flexible machine guns. The two pilots were in an open cockpit behind the front gunner and just ahead of the upper wing each pilot had a complete set of flight controls. The necessity for two pilots is suggested by the 9-hour flight maximum duration of the aircraft. The second gunner was located in a cockpit behind the upper wing and, as in the case of the front gunner, was provided with two flexible machine guns. In addition, a single flexible machine gun was mounted on the floor inside the fuselage and could be fired downward and rearward through a small trap door in the bottom of the fuselage. Apparently, the single rear gunner was expected to alternate between this gun and the two top-mounted guns, depending upon the position of the attacker. The frustration the single rear gunner must have felt in the event of a simultaneous attack from above and below can readily be imagined. [ 52 ] Surely, a second rear gunner must have been carried on missions in which aggressive attack by many enemy aircraft was anticipated. The gross weight of the Handley Page was 14 425 pounds ( table I ), nearly 6000 pounds heavier than the Gotha, and the wing area was 1655 square feet as compared with 963 square feet for the German bomber. The maximum lift-drag ratio of the 0/400 was a very impressive 9.7, which was a full 26 percent higher than that of the Gotha. The Handley Page also had the higher top speed of the two aircraft. The 0/400 was large enough and had sufficient fuel capacity to deliver a 2000-pound bomb load on a target located 300 miles from home base and return safety. The bombs themselves were carried inside the fuselage in a vertical position ready for release. The Handley Page 0/400 seems to have been an outstanding aircraft for its time and, in most respects, superior to the Gotha except for its service ceiling of 8500 feet, which was less than half that attributed to the Gotha. The size and certain other characteristics of the Handley Page 0/400 can be put in perspective by comparison with more modern aircraft. The wing loading and power loading of 8.7 and 20.5 are fairly close to the corresponding values of 6.9 and 18 for the famous Piper J-3 Cub ( chapter 4 ), and the values of the maximum lift-drag ratio of the two aircraft are nearly the same. Thus, in a sense, the 0/400 can be likened to a 14 000-pound Cub, although the response to control inputs and the control forces required of the pilot must be considered as utterly different for the two aircraft. Cecil Lewis in reference 85 suggests the handling characteristics of the aircraft in the following quotation: "True, it was like a lorry in the air. When you decided to turn left, you pushed over the controls, went and had a cup of tea and came back to find the turn just starting. Another interesting comparison of the Handley Page can be with the modern-day Boeing 727-200 jet airliner ( chapter 13 ). The wing areas of the two aircraft are almost the same, but the 727 is nearly 15 times as heavy as the Handley Page, is about 7 times as fast, and has a value of the maximum lift-drag ratio more than twice that of the 0/400. All these changes occurred in a time span of a little less than 50 years. The first Handley Page bomber was flown in 1915, and the 0/400 version appeared in 1916. About 800 Handley Page bombers of all types were built during the war. The model 0/400 continued in military service for several years after the war, and several were converted for use as civil transports. The 0/400 was scheduled for large-scale production in the United States for use by the American Expeditionary [ 53 ] Force in France. By the time hostilities ceased in November 1918, only 107 examples had been completed and all production contracts were soon terminated. The principal legacy of the Gotha and Handley Page heavy bombers was the twin-engine, strut-and-wire-braced, open-cockpit biplane configuration that dominated bomber development for many years following the end of World War I. Various models of the Keystone bomber were employed by the U.S. Army Air Corps until the mid-1930's. These aircraft incorporated the same configuration concepts as the Gotha and Handley Page, with fewer struts and wires, more powerful engines, better structures, and marginally better performance. Caproni CA.42 The name Caproni is an honored one in the annals of World War I aviation. The Italian firm bearing that name, along with Sikorsky in Russia, first flew heavy multiengine bombers in the year 1913, and Caproni bombers were used throughout World War I, not only by Italy but by England and France as well. Production of one version of a Caproni bomber was also planned in the United States but had not materialized at war's end. All Caproni bombers had three engines. Two of these were mounted in a tractor arrangement, with one engine at the nose of each of two fuselagelike booms that connected the wings and tail assembly. The third engine was a pusher installed in the rear of a nacelle situated between the wings. Pilot and gunner-bombardier were in cockpits ahead of the pusher engine. The rear gunner(s) was located in several different positions in the various Caproni bomber. designs. Both biplane and triplane bombers were built by Caproni, with the number of biplanes produced far outnumbering the triplanes. About 200 Caproni bombers of all types were manufactured, of which about 30 were triplanes. In Italian service, these aircraft were extensively used for bombing targets in the Austro-Hungarian empire. Such raids originated in Italy and required round-trip flights across the Alps. Good high-altitude performance was accordingly an important design requirement. Although production of Caproni biplanes far outnumbered the triplanes, the model CA.42 triplane bomber was selected for inclusion here because it represents an interesting application of the triplane formula to a very large aircraft. Some of the reasons for selecting a triplane configuration were given in the previous section describing the [ 54 ] Fokker Dr.-1 triplane fighter. For a very large airplane in which the physical dimensions are limited, perhaps by hanger size or tiedown area on the airfield, the triplane arrangement offers a higher effective aspect ratio for a given wing span and area than does a biplane. The triplane arrangement of the CA.42 probably derives from this argument since the aircraft had a very large wing area. The Caprom CA.42 may be seen in figure 2.23 and offers a unique, if somewhat grotesque, appearance. The three wings were connected and braced by a veritable forest of struts and wires. A front view of the aircraft shows that the interplane struts were configured in a five-bay arrangement. The center nacelle containing the pusher engine, pilot, and forward gunner was attached to the undersurface of the center wing. The tips of the pusher propeller can be seen above and below the left fuselage-boom. A rear gunner was positioned in each fuselage-boom immediately behind the center wing. The boxlike pod on the lower wing housed the bombs. The main landing gear consisted of. Figure 2.23 - Italian Caproni CA. 42 three-engine triplane bomber 1917. [Stephen J. Hudek via Martin Copp]

[ 55 ] . eight wheels in two clusters of four each, skids were located under each wing tip, and rather tall tail skids were at the rear. The large number of wheels was intended to distribute the weight of the aircraft on the ground and thus prevent the aircraft from becoming mired in the relatively soft turf airfields in use at that time. Three rudders were mounted on a single horizontal tall a later version of the aircraft had a biplane horizontal-tail configuration. Ailerons were employed on all three wings.

Canada Aviation And Space Museum, Ottawa

Going somewhere spontaneously is far more exciting then planning out a trip for a few weeks or months. There is just something about packing up the car and just going.

Friday morning, I said, “Let’s go to Ottawa, take in a few museums, go see the musical ride and stay a few days.” And that is what we did.

The last time we visited the museums in Ottawa, my daughter was far to young to really appreciate them. Now that she is a bit older, I wanted to take her to a few museums as a little summer treat.

One of the museums that she wanted to re-visit, was the aviation museum, which is kind of in the middle of nowhere. However, i was not going to complain, since we would be indoors and not outside in the 36 degree Celsius heat.

If you pay attention to the arrangement of the aircraft in the museum, you will notice that the museum is leading you along in the evolution of flight & aircraft in Canada (Keep in mind that the majority of aircraft displayed in the museum, are of military origin).

Below is the Bleriot XI (re-production), the aircraft used by Louis Bleriot to cross the English Channel on July 25th, 1909.

Below is the Curtiss JN-4 “Canuck”, which was used as a trainer during WWI.

Here is a Nieuport 12 hanging from the ceiling. This is a fighter, reconnaissance and trainer aircraft that was used by the French, Russia, Great Britain and the US during WWI.

Below is one of the very first “jet fighters” (it was actually rocket powered, but was certainly revolutionary). This is a German Messerschmidt Me 163B-1a Komet.

Here is a Westland Lysander III with it’s innards showing.

Below is the Morane-Borel monoplane, a French designed/built single engine, single seat monoplane. It raced in several European air races.

Below, with it’s wings folded back, is a Fairey Swordfish II.

Here you can see how the wings folded back in order to make more space on the aircraft carrier.

Another pioneer aircraft, the McDowall monoplane, built and designed by Robert McDowall of Ontario. He finished building the aircraft in 1915. It is the oldest surviving Canadian built aircraft.

A side-view of the Fairey Swordfish and some of it’s inner workings.

Below – with folded wings – is a Hawker Sea Fury FB.11, a beast of an aircraft. Once again, the folding wings of these Naval aircraft enabled the crew to not only maneuver the aircraft more easily around/below the flight deck, but it also enabled them to park the aircraft more closely together.

To round out the trilogy, here is the McDonnell F2H-3 Banshee. Below, you are able to see the ports for 20mm cannons. There are two on each side and are positioned so that the muzzle flash does not blind the pilot when fired at night.

The Sea Fury as seen from the rear of the aircraft. Can you imagine being in that cockpit, trying to see the runway over the nose of the aircraft?

This commercial airliner jet engine on display, made you realize how large these engines really are.

The tail end of the Avro 683 Lancaster X, with it’s quad .303 machine guns. (Nash & Thomson FN20)

This Hawker Typhoon is a very special aircraft. It is an MK Ib MN 235 and is the worlds last, fully complete Typhoon. It is the same type that the City Of Ottawa 440 squadron flew in WWII. It is on loan (for about 2 years) from the RAF Museum in London and arrived in Ottawa just in time for this year’s D-Day celebrations.

Here is another example of Germany’s “jet age” combat aircraft, the Heinkel He 162A-1 Volksjager (People’s fighter). The aircraft was made mostly of wood, as metal was in short supply at the time and was also being kept for other aircraft. It saw operational service starting in April of 1945, but far to late for the Third Reich.

Here is a Messerschmitt BF 109F-4.

Below is the nose of the Avro Lancaster, with the tail of the He 162 and the side of the BF 109 in the foreground.

Below is a Fleet 16B Finch II. It is a two seat trainer that began service in 1939 and was heavily used in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) during WWII.

Here is a North American Harvard II, another training aircraft used by the British Commonwealth to train it’s pilots during WWII

Another view of the BF 109F-4.

Now for some helicopters. Below we have a Boeing Vertol CH-113 Labrador.

Next to the large Labrador, is this very small Bell 47G HTL-6. This helicopter was employed as an observation/training helicopter.

Here is a Sikorsky S-55 H04S-3.

Below is a Bell CH-136 Kiowa.

Here is a Bell CH-135 Twin Huey.

And to round things out for the helicopters, here is a Piasecki HUP-3.

Civilians. Below is a Lockheed L-10A Electra.

Just to the right of the Lockheed is a Boeing 247D.

Here is a Douglas DC-3, famous in both the civil and military world of aviation.

Below is a Bombardier Challenger 604. Here, Active Control Technology is on display. ACT aids the pilot in controlling advanced fly-by-wire aircraft.

Perched up on this display and looking over the museum floor, is a De Havilland D.H.100 Vampire 3.

Here is the the McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) CF-188 (CF-18B). These aircraft came into service with the RCAF in 1982 and are still serving till this day. I won’t get into politics here, but we don’t need the F-35. It is not a suitable aircraft for the service and missions it would be tasked with. What would be more suitable, is the Super Hornet or the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Here is a bit of an odd aircraft, the Canadair CL-84-1 Dynavert. This is a truly Canadian aircraft that was designed & built by Canadair between 1962-72.

Four units were made, with three of them entering flight testing. Two of them crashed, but there was no loss of life. Even though the aircraft performed very well in experimental and operational trials, no production models were ever built.

Makes me wonder if this was not the pre-cursor to today’s Boeing V-22 Osprey.

The Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. The Germans called it the “widowmaker” and for good reason.

Here is a Hawker Siddeley AV-8A Harrier. Interesting that they have this aircraft on display since it never served with any branch of the Canadian Armed Forces. Though, it was next to the CL-84, another V-TOL aircraft.

Here is the Canadair CF-116 (CF-5A). They were actually built under license from Northrop by Canadair. The RCAF took possession of their CF-5s starting in 1968 and finally retired them in 1995. A total of 220 units were made.

CF-5As actually performed reconnaissance missions over Oka during the Oka Crisis in 1990.

The McDonnell CF-101B Voodoo. These aircraft were built and sold by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation (now Boeing) of St. Louis. They replaced the CF-100 Canuck in RCAF service.

The Voodoo served in the RCAF from 1961 to 1984 and served as the primary all-weather interceptor.

I was first acquainted with the Voodoo at an airshow in Mirabel, probably not to long before it was retired. Let me tell you, it is a beast of an aircraft. Loud does not begin to describe it. You can just feel the brute force of the engines as it roars past.

Below is the Avro Canada CF-100 MK.5D. This is the aircraft that was replaced by the CF-101 Voodoo. The CF-100 was the only mass produced Canadian fighter jet and had a short takeoff run & high rate of climb, making it perfect for the role of interceptor. It entered service with the RCAF in 1953 and was retired in 1981. It also served with the Belgian Air Force.

Here is the gun pack that was featured in the MK.3 version of the CF-100. It consisted of eight Browning M3 .50 caliber machine guns. The pack dropped out for faster service.

Below is a Mig 15 – NATO reporting name “Fagot” – (WSK Lim-2) in Polish Air Force livery. This example is actually a Polish produced Mig 15 under license from Mikoyan Gurevich, the famous Soviet aircraft manufacturer.

This is the Canadair Sabre 6. Both the Sabre and the Mig 15 made history over the battlefield of the Korean War, meeting in head-to-head dog fights.

Here is a right side view of the CF-5A.

Angled view of the Sabre 6. You can clearly see the three gun ports for the .50 caliber M3 Brownings. The Sabre had a total of six M3 .50 caliber machine guns.

Below is a Canadair T-33AN Silver Star 3. This is another Canadian built jet under license from Lockheed. It was used as a trainer, communications platform, target towing and enemy aircraft simulator by the RCAF for fifty years.

This particular example, was used as the RCAFs solo aerobatic aircraft, known as the Red Knight.

This is an underside photo of the nose of the DC-3.

Below is a Noorduyn Norseman VI, a Canadian built & designed bush plane.

Here is a Curtiss HS-2L. This aircraft was never intended to be a bush plane but once Canadians got a hold of this flying boat built for the US Navy in WWI, it was employed as one of Canada’s first bush planes after the armistice of WWI was signed.

Here is a rear side view of an A.E.G. G. IV, a German WWI bomber.

There you have it. I was not able to capture every aircraft in the museum due to time constraints, so another trip is in order.

All the photos were taken with the XP1, 35mm and with the Pro Neg Hi film simulation. With the low light and changing lighting conditions in the museum, i was constantly changing aperture to keep my shutter speed above 1/30. ISO was on auto, with the ceiling being 6400.

A.E.G. G.IV - History


Surviving AEG G.IV serial 574/18 on display in the Canada Aviation & Space Museum in Ottawa (David C Eyre)

Country of origin:


Long-range twin-engine medium bomber

Power Plant:

Two 194 kw (260 hp) Mercedes D,IVa six-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engines


  • Wingspan: 18.40 m (60 ft 4¼ in)
  • Length: 9.70 m (31 ft 10 in)
  • Height: 3.90 m (12 ft 9⅝ in)
  • Wing area: 67 m² (675 sq ft)
  • Max speed: 165 km/h (103 mph)
  • Max speed at 1,534 m (5,000 ft): 145 km/h (90 mph)
  • Max speed at 2,743 m (9,000 ft): 138 km/h (86 mph)
  • Landing speed: 121 km/h (75 mph)
  • Service ceiling: 4,500 m (14,760 ft)
  • Climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft): 5 mins
  • Endurance at full power: 3¼ hours
  • Endurance at cruising speed: 4 to 5 hours
  • Fuel capacity: 540 litres (119 Imp gals)
  • Empty weight: 2,400 kg (5,280 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 3,630 kg (7,986 lb)


The AEG G.IV was designed and developed by Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft [AEG] at a similar time to the Friedrichshafen and Gotha bombers and used the same engines but had a performance inferior to those aircraft. Be that as it may, it was placed in production and approximately 400 examples were delivered. It was basically a refinement of the G.I, G.II and G.III types which had been built in small numbers.

The wings consisted of a fixed centre-section with swept back outer panels which were built on 50 mm (1.96 in) diameter steel tubes. The wooden ribs were of solid wood glued into grooved flanges. There was steel tube framing with cable bracing wires. The engines were mounted on steel struts attached directly to the lower wing spars and braced to the fuselage upper longerons in the tractor configuration. Steel tube was also used in the construction of the fuselage and tail assembly, the nose section being covered with plywood and elsewhere being covered with fabric. The aircraft was quite heavy for its time and when carrying a full fuel load could only carry a small bomb load. Thus the aircraft was mainly used for tactical bombing behind the lines on the Western Front or for reconnaissance and photography. Accommodation was provided for a crew of four but normally three were carried and crew members could change stations during flight.

Edward IV (1442 - 1483)

Edward IV © Edward IV was twice king of England, winning the struggle against the Lancastrians to establish the House of York on the English throne.

Edward was born on 28 April 1442 at Rouen in France, the son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. Edward's father was the leading Yorkist in the dynastic struggle against the Lancastrians known as the Wars of the Roses, which began in 1455. When Richard Plantagenet was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, Edward inherited his claim. With the support of the powerful Earl of Warwick, known as 'the Kingmaker', Edward defeated the Lancastrians in a series of battles, culminating in the Battle of Towton in 1461. With the Lancastrian king, Henry VI, overthrown, Edward was crowned Edward IV.

Warwick believed he could continue to control the new king. He was keen to negotiate a foreign marriage for Edward, but in 1464 Edward secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner. Warwick was furious at the favours now shown to Elizabeth's relatives and allied himself to Edward's brother George, Duke of Clarence, leading a revolt against the king. Warwick and Clarence then fled to France, where they joined Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI. Margaret's Lancastrian army invaded England in September 1470. Edward fled to the Netherlands until March 1471, when he and his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, returned to England. Edward defeated and killed Warwick at Barnet before defeating the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury in May. Henry VI was put to death in the Tower of London.

The second part of Edward's reign, from 1471 to 1483, was a period of relative peace and security. He used income from the Crown Estates to pay governmental costs, and was therefore less in need of parliamentary grants than his predecessors - he called parliament only six times. Commercial treaties, external peace and internal order revived trade, benefiting customs duties and other revenues. Councils were set up to govern in the Marches of Wales and in the north.

Edward died on 9 April 1483. His young sons, Edward and Richard, were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Richard housed them in the Tower of London where they were probably murdered on his orders. Parliament requested that Richard take the throne and he accepted, being crowned Richard III.


Data from German Aircraft of the First World War [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 6.1   m (20   ft 0   in)
  • Wingspan: 9.4   m (30   ft 10   in)
  • Empty weight: 710   kg (1,565   lb)
  • Gross weight: 970   kg (2,138   lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IIIa[2] 6-cyl water-cooled in-line piston engine, 126.8   kW (170.0   hp)

Canada Aviation Museum

Spacelab pallet is transported to Canadian Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa on September 20, 2012, where it will be on display for four years, on loan from NASA. 27123804 u00a9 Howard Sandler | Dreamstime.com De Havilland Canada DHC-6 twin otter is a twin-engined turboprop aircraft built by De Havilland Canada. It is possible to replace the landing gear on the twin otter with floats or skis, which enables the airplane's use in areas without airports. Photo taken on: March 02nd, 2013. 29694859 u00a9 Steirus | Dreamstime.com

Over 130 aircraft chronicle the ancient dream of flight and the significant part played by Canadians in the development of aviation. Major themes of aeronautical history are reflected in the museum installations, including the efforts of pioneering individuals to build and fly their own aircraft, the many Canadians who flew the legendary machines of the two great conflicts of the last century, the birth of air transport and examples of jet engine technology as well as displays focusing on the uniquely Canadian experience of bush flying, and the phenomenal growth of the aviation industry in Canada over the past 50 years.

Canada's aviation heritage is rich, infinitely varied and filled with dynamic characters who have had a profound impact on this country. The Museum has avoided the tendency to concentrate exclusively on the aviation accomplishments of a single nation, or on developments within one sector of the aviation industry. Instead, the Museum's collection policy is to illustrate the development of the flying machine in both peace and war from the pioneer period to the present time. The collection gives particular, but not exclusive, reference to Canadian achievements. Consequently, aircraft from many nations are represented in the collection - a fact that has earned it a strong international reputation.

Visitors to the Museum will see a Silver Dart (the aircraft that made the first powered flight in Canada in 1909), the A.E.G. G.IV (the only WWI German twin-engine aircraft in existence), the Lancaster bomber, the 1947 prototype of the world-famous de Havilland Canada Beaver, the only known remains of the controversial Avro Arrow, and examples of a Sabre, MiG-15 and Harrier and the Messerchmitt Me 163B, the first rocket fighter.

The Canada Aviation Museum's content-rich Web site offers access to the collection and resources of the Museum. Internet visitors can find detailed information and photographs for each aircraft in the Museum's collection.

Germany - 1917 Jasta 11 Fokker Dr.I

Some Fokker Dr.I Triplanes of Jasta 11

Recently I have been busy producing a lot of a Fokker aircraft profiles. I have reached 36 Dr.I and 24 D.VII with more on the way. I have been working on fleshing out different Jasta so I can set up articles on their history. Here are a few of the new profiles.

Fokker Dr.I Jasta 11 Manfred von Richthofen serial number 127/17 - 1917
Fokker Dr.I Jasta 11 Lothar von Richthofen- 1917
Fokker Dr.I Jasta 11 Eberhard Mohnicke serial number 155-17 - 1917
Fokker Dr.I Jasta 11 Ltn. Hans Weisse serial number 341-17 - 1917

Jasta 11

Jagdstaffel 11 (11th Fighter Squadron) was founded on September 28, 1916 from elements of Keks 1, 2 and 3 and mobilized on October 11 as part of the German Air Service's expansion program. THe program created permanent specialised fighter squadrons, or "Jastas". Jasta 11 became the most successful fighter squadron in the German Air Service.

Jasta 11's first commander was Oberleutnant Rudolf Lang, from its mobilization at Brayelles, until January 14, 1917. Jasta 11's first months of operations were not distinguished.

It was not until the appointment of Manfred von Richthofen on January 16, 1917 as Commanding Officer that the unit became a legendary fighting force. Von Richthofen was already an able tactical pilot and ace during several months of service in Jasta 2 and became a highly effective unit commander who led his pilots by example. He already had 16 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite just before he assumed his command of Jasta 11.

The unit was first based at Douai-Brayelles and then Roucourt for operations over the 6 Armee on the Arras front, the Jasta were equipped with various models of Albatros fighters. Between January 22, 1917 and the end of March the Jasta claimed some 36 victories. The beginning of the Battle of Arras in early April Jasta 11 logging 89 claims for aircraft out of a total of 298 made by all German fighter units for the month. This decimation of the Royal Flying Corps became termed "Bloody April".

On July 26, 1917, Jasta 11 became part of Jagdgeschwader 1 - a collection of four Jastas into one administrative and highly mobile tactical force. Richthofen was promoted to command JG I. It became known as "Richthofen's Flying Circus" because it mimicked a circus's logistics by using dedicated railway trains to transport it to forward airfields, and because of its vividly painted aircraft.

In September 1917, Jasta 11 would be equipped with Fokker Dr.I triplanes. It would operate these until April–May 1918, when it received the Fokker D.VIIs it would use until war's end.

Manfred von Richthofen remained Jasta commander until June 26, 1917, when his deputy, Leutnant Karl Allmenroeder took over. Following the latter's death the next day, former Jasta 11 pilot Leutnant Kurt Wolff took over after his transfer back from Jasta 29. After Wolff was wounded in September, Oberlt. Wilhelm Reinhard took charge until Wolff returned. Soon after Wolff was killed in action on September 15, Lothar von Richthofen took command. Jasta 11 would then have a bewildering succession of other temporary commanding officers, especially when Lothar was frequently away from the front recovering from wounds. Oberleutnant Erich Rüdiger von Wedel was the last Staffelführer, from September 1918 until the end of the war. The Jasta was demobilised at Darmstadt on November 16, 1918.

Jasta 11 eventually became the highest scoring German Jasta of World War I, with 350 claims. The first was scored on 23 January 1917, the 100th on 23 April, the 200th on August 17, the 250th on April 2, 1918, and the 300th on June 28, 1918. (By comparison, the British 56 Squadron claimed 427.)

It numbered no fewer than twenty aces among its ranks, and "graduated" pilots to command numerous other Jastas in the German Air force. In return it suffered 17 pilots killed, 2 POW, and 2 killed in flying accidents. Its loss rate was thus less than one-tenth of its opponents, although it also suffered 19 wounded in action.


  1. Jagdstaffel 11. (2011, May 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:20, July 19, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jagdstaffel_11&oldid=427294574
  2. Above the Lines Franks, Bailey & Guest , (grub street, 1993)
  3. Greg VanWyngarden, Harry Dempsey. Richthofen's Circus: Jagdgeschwader Nr 1. Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-84176-726-3, 9781841767260.


That was very interesting especially the numbers and stats, nice work sir.

Thanks Fran. This is a trial run for a new section I am planning for my main website. I just thought it would be good to get some feedback.

I really enjoyed this. I am sure Jasta 11 wasn't the only Jasta have a high turn over on commanders in 1918. How does its lose rate compare to other Jastas?

Thanks On, I am not sure about the comparison. The Jasta project is still in early stage of research and development. I do not have enough information gathered to make an assessment. My main intention besides putting the aircraft profiles I have done into context was to start fleshing out the section on Aces on my website. I am thinking it may take some time to get things in order. I have not reached the stage of adding the section to my site. This was a sneak preview.

Watch the video: Chozas 2012 Gotha G IV Estática Diego García (January 2022).