NASA's Kepler observatory has, to date, detected more than 2,700 potential planets that could harbour life since it launched in March 2009, revolutionizing scientists’ understanding of worlds beyond our solar system. Now, new advances are set to extend our search for alien planets even further.
A number of other spacecrafts will join in the search for exoplanets and the first one is scheduled for October this year – The European Space Agency’s Gaia mission. Gaia is designed to create an extremely accurate 3D map of about 1 billion Milky Way stars (still only 1 percent of our galaxy's total!), which could reveal thousands of new planetary systems.
The next planned exoplanet mission is in 2017 when ESA's Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite, or CHEOPS, will look at nearby stars known to host planets, watching for these worlds to cross their stars' faces. This is known as the transit method.
NASA also plans to launch a planet hunting mission in the same year with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. TESS will use the transit method to search for worlds orbiting nearby stars, with a focus on Earth-size planets that may be capable of supporting life.
It is hoped that a number of exoplanets will be identified and flagged for further investigation. Then, hopefully in 2018, NASA’s powerful James Webb Space Telescope will be used to further examine the most promising of these newfound worlds, scanning their atmospheres for water vapour and gases that may have been produced by living organisms, such as oxygen, nitrous oxide and methane.
There has been a huge emphasis on the search for habitable planets and this is set to continue for the next decade. It may not be long at all until a truly remarkable discovery will be made.
Search for extraterrestrial intelligence
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is a collective term for scientific searches for intelligent extraterrestrial life, for example, monitoring electromagnetic radiation for signs of transmissions from civilizations on other planets.   
Scientific investigation began shortly after the advent of radio in the early 1900s, and focused international efforts have been going on since the 1980s.  In 2015, Stephen Hawking and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner announced a well-funded effort called Breakthrough Listen. 
U.F.O.s and the Search for Alien Life
Re “The Truth May Yet Be Out There,” by Adam Frank (Opinion guest essay, June 2):
As a nonscientist, I hesitate to quibble with a professor of astrophysics about the criteria for acknowledgment of extraterrestrial life. However, Dr. Frank addresses the matter as if it can be adequately probed by the application of current scientific and technological tools.
Wouldn’t it be safe to say that, whatever might be out there, a few quadrillion miles away from us, is likely to be utterly dissimilar to everything we know with our earthbound consciousness? If so, we literally couldn’t even conceive of that world’s nature or its inhabitants, if there be any.
If an 18th-century scientist were somehow to obtain a view of our 21st-century world, what capacity would he have to recognize nuclear power, an M.R.I. scan or Wi-Fi? Or, indeed, the principles behind spaceflight? He would be, as we all are, a prisoner of his paradigm.
Extraterrestrial “life” may be no more graspable by science than the charms of music.
To the Editor:
Adam Frank ignores an important aspect of this issue: the possibility that any extraterrestrials from an advanced civilization visiting us may not be friendly, which should be of great concern to all of us.
Let us hope that whatever aliens we encounter do not turn out to be like us — blithely devastating and exterminating other creatures and the biological systems that sustain life on Earth. Even and especially if they are kind and compassionate, they might feel obliged to exterminate such a dangerous and destructive “pest” species as human beings. We clearly represent a threat to most other life-forms on our planet.
Our sense of morality and ethics rarely restrains us in our pursuit of domination of animals and nature. Why should aliens treat us any differently?
To the Editor:
If extraterrestrials indeed exist, the answer to Adam Frank’s question of why they don’t simply announce themselves on the White House lawn may be that they are too far above us in every way to be bothered trying to establish contact with so inferior a life form. Before you remove an ant hill from your lawn, do you try to announce your intentions to the queen ant?
Pamela Tamarkin Reis
To the Editor:
It was 1964, as I recall, when two of my brothers, Joe, 15, and Rich, 13, were standing in the driveway of our house in Schenectady, N.Y., and Joe noticed a jet-like noise that caused him to look up. They saw five airborne craft approach and come to a complete stop approximately over our house at an estimated altitude of 1,000 feet. They were oval in shape, silver-gray in color, in a V-formation, and each had a rectangular pattern that looked like an access hatch on its underside.
Joe ran into the house to get some binoculars. As he returned, the objects began moving and quickly accelerated to an enormous speed in a flat trajectory. Joe was so astonished at what they had seen that he immediately called the local airport to ask if it had them on its radar. The airport said, “Absolutely not,” and implied that Joe was pulling a prank. Over the last 50 years, I have asked each of them at widely separated intervals to draw what they had seen, and the drawings were always quite similar.
To the Editor:
I, too, am a physicist who works on finding planets around other stars and life on them. While I largely agree with Adam Frank’s essay, many scientific advances have come about through eyewitness accounts of phenomena. One of the more interesting of these stories, which I have written about, involves meteorites.
Ernst Chladni published a book in 1794 asserting that rocks fall from the sky, based on many nearly identical stories spread over time and location. That there were rocks in space was considered absurd at the time, and his book was largely dismissed, precisely because he relied on eyewitness evidence.
A few months after the book was published, a large fireball appeared over a city in Italy, and later a 56-pound rock fell in England. Chladni was right, and he helped form an entire subfield of science, based on eyewitness accounts.
While U.F.O.s may indeed be explainable, eyewitness accounts by nonscientists ought not be automatically dismissed.
The writer is a curator in the astrophysics department at the American Museum of Natural History.
Alleged NASA hacker Claims The US Has Deep Space Warships
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According to a hacker who is facing a ten-year legal battle after breaking into NASA computers, the United States has a fully operational fleet of Space Warships. Gary McKinnon, firmly believes that he came across the ultimate information that proves the US have a secret space program operated by the navy with fully operational warships that operate in Space.
In a new interview on UFO channel Richplanet TV, McKinnon finally reveals the entire truth about his findings saying: ‘I kept going for months and months. I kept thinking, ‘They’re going to close this door’.
McKinnon said that he used a software called Landsearch which allowed him to search all files and folders of interest to him.
‘I scanned and looked for documents, I found an Excel spreadsheet which said, ‘Non-terrestrial officers’, states McKinnon.
‘It had ranks and names. It had tabs for ‘material transfer’ between ships.
‘I took that to be, they must have a ships based in space – the names started with U.S.S.’
Gary McKinnon is accused of mounting the biggest ever hack in the history of the United States by breaking into the computers of the Army, Air force, Navy and NASA.
During his latest interview, McKinnon describes a conversation from a former NASA whistleblower Donna Hare, who had been told by a colleague that NASA was trying to hide delicate information by “airbrushing” UFOs from their photos.
“There was a colleague, who was in another room — they all had secret clearance but they were on different projects — and she (Hare) was in this chap’s lab or room or whatever it is and he said come and take a look at this,” said McKinnon.
While there are many people who firmly believe this is yet another elaborate hoax, there have been a series of former NASA and government employees who back up the claims made by McKinnon.
According to statements from a former Marine not only have humans made it to Mars in the past, but we have developed a secret space program and flotilla that operates in space. The former US Marine, was posted on the red planet for years and his mission was to protect the five human colonies from indigenous life forms on Mars. According to the former Marine known as Captain Kaye, not only did he spend years on Mars, but he also served aboard a giant space carrier for three years. He worked for the Mars Defense Force (MDF) which is owned and operated by the Mars Colony Corporation (MCC) which is basically a conglomerate of financial institutions, government and tech companies. Kaye and his team were part of a special section of the United States Marines with a highly classified mission, protect and ensure the existence of five newly-established colonies on the surface of the red planet. The Earth Defense Force, another secret military branch has military recruits from countries such as the United States, China and Russia.
Parts of the testimony from Captain Kaye are consistent with that of Michael Relfe, another whistleblower who claims to have served 20 years tour on the red planet. Laura Magdalene Eisenhower, great-granddaughter of former President Eisenhower claims that efforts were made to recruit here onto a human colony on Mars, led by researcher Dr. Hal Puthoff.
According to “Jackie”, there are humans on Mars, and we have been on the red planet for over 20 years. ‘Jackie’, she and six other employees saw the exact same thing, suggesting this might be the evidence that proves that a secret space program did exist (or might even still).
According to ‘Jackie’ while working as part of the team downloading telemetry from the Viking Lander, she saw human setting foot on the surface of the red planet via a live feed from Mars.
In an interview with Coast-to-Coast AM, Jackie talked about humans on Mars, something that has been discussed among other alleged NASA employees for years.
Many Ufologists firmly believe that the statements made by the above individuals is accurate and that this information is being withheld from the general public.
Many have made shocking comments about alien life and omitted information regarding alien life, here below are some of our favorite quotes
“Not every discovery has been announced.”
— Dr. Farouk El Baz, NASA scientist.
In a recent interview, renowned scientist Professor Stephen Hawking said: “To my mathematical brain, the numbers alone make thinking about aliens perfectly rational” (Source)
“I was testing a P-51 fighter in Minneapolis when I spotted this object. I was at about 10,000 feet on a nice, bright, sunny afternoon. I thought the object was a kite, then I realized that no kite is gonna fly that high.” As I got closer it looked like a weather balloon, gray and about three feet in diameter. But as soon as I got behind the darn thing it didn’t look like a balloon anymore. It looked like a saucer, a disk. About the same time, I realized that it was suddenly going away from me — and there I was, running at about 300 miles per hour. I tracked it for a little way, and then all of a sudden the damn thing just took off. It pulled about a 45 degree climbing turn and accelerated and just flat disappeared.” – Donald Slayton, Mercury astronaut, 1951
It was a little different when James Lovell on board the Apollo 8 command module came out from behind the moon and said for everybody to hear: ‘PLEASE BE INFORMED THAT THERE IS A SANTA CLAUS.’ Even though this happened on Christmas Day 1968, many people sensed a hidden meaning in those words. [B] ‘PLEASE BE INFORMED THAT THERE IS A SANTA CLAUS.’ – Astronaut James Lovell, Apollo 8. December 25th, 1968
“We thought they could have been Russian ¬ we regularly had MiG-15s over flying our base. We scrambled our Sabre jets to intercept and got to our ceiling of 45,000 feet . . . and they were still way above us traveling faster than we were.” “These vehicles were in formation like a fighter group, but they were metallic silver and saucer-shaped. Believe me, they weren’t like any MiGs I’d seen before! They had to be UFOs.” – Major Gordon Cooper
According to James Godwell, an aerospace journalist who wrote for several publications like Jane’s Defense Weekly, Aviation Week and Space Technology, and Interavia, during some of his interviews with highly ranked individuals in the military and aerospace industry, some of his contacts said “we have things out there that are literally out of this world, better than Star Trek or what you see in the movies.”
UFO sightings of the past: the Ultimate Ancient Alien Evidence
According to experts, the Vedas speak about two categories of flying objects that visited ancient India in the distant past. These mysterious objects are described in Sanskrit writing, where you can find incredible devices and technologies that were not supposed to be present on our planet for thousands of years. In the Mahabharata, the Puranas, and the Ramayanas, we find more descriptions of mysterious devices that surpass technological understanding of ancient man.
The descriptions of highly advanced vehicles found in ancient texts are both incredible and confusing. In the ancient book of the Vaimanika Shastra or the Science of Aeronautics, there are texts which speak about crafts that are literally controlled with our minds, made possible because of extremely advanced technology which has been kept away from society in modern times.
According to Dr. V. Raghavam, a well-known a Sanskrit scholar and musicologist, who authored over 120 books and 1200 articles, ancient Indian texts speak about humans that lived on other planets and alien beings that visited our ancestors thousands of years ago. Dr. V. Raghavam won the Sahitya Akademi Award for Sanskrit in 1966.
“Fifty years of researching this ancient work convinces me that there are living beings on other planets, and that they were visiting the earth as far back as 4000 B.C.”
“There is a just a mass of fascinating information about flying machines, even fantastic science fiction weapons, that can be found in translations of the Vedas (scriptures), Indian epics, and other ancient Sanskrit text”.
Ancient Egypt and the Tulli papyrus: Evidence of a massive UFO sighting
In Ancient Egypt the Tulli papyrus tells an incredible story of a mass UFO sightings. It is believed that this ancient document, which in fact isn’t a papyrus actually, offers the earliest citation of flying saucers on the planet. The Tulli “papyrus” is a translation of a modern transcription of an ancient Egyptian document:
“In the year 22, of the third month of winter, sixth hour of the day […] among the scribes of the House of Life it was found that a strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky. It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor. Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width. It had no voice. It came toward His Majesty’s house. Their heart became confused through it, and they fell upon their bellies. They [went] to the king, to report it. His Majesty [ordered that] the scrolls [located] in the House of Life be consulted. His Majesty meditated on all these events which were now going on.
After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven […] Powerful was the position of the Fiery Disks.
The army of the King looked on, with His Majesty in their midst. It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south. Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky: a marvel never before known since the foundation of the country. And His Majesty caused incense to be brought to appease the heart of Amun-Re, the god of the Two Lands. And it was [ordered] that the event [be recorded for] His Majesty in the Annals of the House of Life [to be remembered] forever.”
In Roman history numerous mysterious objects were reported in the sky. In 154 BC, in modern-day Italy people from the north reported seeing countless objects flying in the sky. In 217, people witnessed shiny disks- resembling shields in the sky. These mysterious UFO’s were reported in many parts of Europe not only over modern-day Italy. In 214 BC, Roman historian Livy wrote about ‘phantom ships gleaming in the sky.’
Alien ships near Saturn? Ex-NASA scientist claims of their existence
AN ENGINEER who previously worked at NASA Ames Research Center has claimed UFOs are hiding in the rings of Saturn.
Strange 'whistling' sound from inside Saturn.
Strange 'whistling' sound from inside Saturn
UFOs are hiding in the rings of Saturn. Source:News Corp Australia
A FORMER NASA engineer at the Ames Research Center claims aliens are in our solar system and they are creating rings around planets like Saturn.
Dr. Norman Bergrun, who previously worked at NASA Ames Research Center has recently made comments that UFOs are hiding in the rings of Saturn.
According to conspiracy theory channel, SecureTeam10, which obtained Bergrun’s comments, the alien ships have been here for some time.
𠇊lien spacecraft are proliferating in our solar system and around these ringed planets,” Bergrun is quoted as saying on the video.
Bergrun also noted the aircraft are by the other ringed-planets in the solar system, including Jupiter and Uranus.
SecureTeam 10, which has nearly 900,000 YouTube subscribers, often runs conspiracy theory-based videos. The organisation describes itself as the “source for reporting the best in new UFO sighting news, info on the space cover-up, and the strange activity happening on and off of our planet.”
Bergrun wrote the 1986 book entitled Ringmakers of Saturn. The book highlights that there are massive alien ships around Saturn (which Bergrun dubs “ring makers”), including ones which have actually created some of the rings around the gas giant.
- Out of the Silent Planet (1938), set mostly on Mars (Malacandra). In this book, Elwin Ransom voyages to Mars and discovers that Earth is exiled from the rest of the Solar System. Far back in Earth's past, it fell to an angelic being known as the Bent Oyarsa, and now, to prevent contamination of the rest of the Solar System ("The Field of Arbol"), it is known as "the silent planet" (Thulcandra).
- Perelandra (1943), set mostly on Venus. Also known as Voyage to Venus. Here Dr Ransom journeys to an unspoiled Venus in which the first humanoids have just emerged.
- That Hideous Strength (1945), set on Earth. A scientific think tank called the N.I.C.E. (The National Institute of Co-ordinated Experiments) is secretly in touch with demonic entities who plan to ravage and lay waste to planet Earth.
In 1946, the publishing house Avon (now an imprint of HarperCollins) published a version of That Hideous Strength specially abridged by C. S. Lewis entitled The Tortured Planet.
Publication history Edit
- Lewis, C.S. Out of the Silent Planet. London : The Bodley Head, 1938.
- Lewis, C.S. Perelandra: A Novel. London : The Bodley Head, 1943.
- Lewis, C.S. That Hideous Strength: A Modern Fairy-Tale for Grown-ups. London : The Bodley Head, 1945.
- Lewis, C.S. The Dark Tower and Other Stories. Walter Hooper, ed. London: Collins, 1977.
The Dark Tower Edit
An unfinished manuscript published posthumously in 1977, named The Dark Tower by Walter Hooper, its editor,  features Elwin Ransom in a less central role as involved with an experiment that allows its participants to view on a special screen their own location in a parallel universe. Its authenticity was impeached by Lewis scholar Kathryn Lindskoog in her scholarly criticism of Walter Hooper, but in 2003 Alastair Fowler established its authenticity when he wrote in the Yale Review that he saw Lewis writing the manuscript that would be subsequently published as The Dark Tower, heard him reading it, and discussed it with him.
Lewis stated in a letter to Roger Lancelyn Green: 
What immediately spurred me to write was Olaf Stapledon's Last and First Men … and an essay in J.B.S. Haldane's Possible Worlds both of wh[ich] seemed to take the idea of such [space] travel seriously and to have the desperately immoral outlook wh[ich] I try to pillory in Weston. I like the whole interplanetary ideas as a mythology and simply wished to conquer for my own (Christian) p[oin]t of view what has always hitherto been used by the opposite side. I think H. G. Wells's First Men in the Moon the best of the sort I have read …
The other main literary influence was David Lindsay's A Voyage to Arcturus (1920): "The real father of my planet books is David Lindsay’s A Voyage to Arcturus, which you also will revel in if you don’t know it. I had grown up on Wells's stories of that kind: it was Lindsay who first gave me the idea that the ‘scientifiction’ appeal could be combined with the ‘supernatural’ appeal." 
The books are not especially concerned with technological speculation, and in many ways read like fantasy adventures combined with themes of biblical history and classical mythology. Like most of Lewis's mature writing, they contain much discussion of contemporary rights and wrongs, similar in outlook to Madeleine L'Engle's Kairos series. Many of the names in the trilogy reflect the influence of Lewis's friend J.R.R. Tolkien's Elvish languages.
Ransom appears very similar to Lewis himself: a university professor, expert in languages and medieval literature, unmarried (Lewis did not marry until his fifties), wounded in World War I and with no living relatives except for one sibling. Lewis, however, apparently intended for Ransom to be partially patterned after his friend and fellow Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien, since Lewis is presented as novelizing Ransom's reminiscences in the epilogue of Out of the Silent Planet and is a character-narrator in the frame tale for Perelandra. [ citation needed ] In That Hideous Strength Ransom, with his royal charisma and casual acceptance of the supernatural, appears more like Charles Williams (or some of the heroes in Williams's books). [ citation needed ]
In Out of the Silent Planet it is suggested that "Ransom" is not the character's real name but merely an alias for a respectable professor whose reputation might suffer from his recounting such a journey to the planet Mars. In the following books, however, this is unaccountably dropped and it is made clear that Ransom is the character's true name. As befits a philologist, he provides an etymology: the name does not derive from the modern word "ransom" but rather is a contraction of the Old English for "Ranolf's Son". This may be another allusion to Tolkien, a professor of Old English.
Ransom gets much information on cosmology from the Oyarsa (presiding angel) of Malacandra, or Mars. Maleldil, the son of the Old One, ruled the Field of Arbol, or Solar System, directly. But then the Bent One (the Oyarsa of Earth) rebelled against Maleldil and all the eldila (much as Morgoth rebelled against Eru and the other Valar in Tolkien's Silmarillion) of Deep Heaven (outer space). In response to this act, the Bent One suffered confinement on Earth where he first inflicted great evil. Thus he made Earth a silent planet, cut off from the Oyéresu of other planets, hence the name 'Thulcandra', the Silent Planet, which is known throughout the Universe. Maleldil tried to reach out to Thulcandra and became a man to save the human race. According to the Green Lady, Tinidril (Mother of Perelandra, or Venus), Thulcandra is favored among all the worlds, because Maleldil came to it to become a man.
In the Field of Arbol, the outer planets are older, the inner planets newer. The Asteroids are called the "dancers before the threshold of the Great Worlds."
Earth will remain a silent planet until the end of the great Siege of Deep Heaven against the Oyarsa of Earth. The siege starts to end (with the Oyéresu of other worlds descending to Earth) at the finale of the Trilogy, That Hideous Strength. But there is still much to happen until the fulfillment of what is predicted in the Book of Revelation, when the Oyéresu put an end to the rule of the Bent Eldil and, on the way, smash the Moon to fragments. This, in turn, will not be "The End of the World", but merely "The Very Beginning" of what is still to come.
The eldila (singular eldil) are super-human extraterrestrials. The human characters in the trilogy encounter them on various planets, but the eldila themselves are native to interplanetary and interstellar space ("Deep Heaven"). They are barely visible as pillars of faint, shifting light.
Certain very powerful eldila, the Oyéresu (singular Oyarsa), control the course of nature on each of the planets of the Solar System (similar to the Valar in The Silmarillion). They (and maybe all the eldila) can manifest in corporeal forms. The title Oyarsa seems to indicate the function of leadership, regardless of the leader's species when the Perelandran human Tor assumes rule of his world, he styles himself "Tor-Oyarsa-Perelendri" (presumably "Tor, Ruler of Perelandra").
The eldila are science-fictionalised depictions of angels, immortal and holy, with the Oyéresu perhaps being angels of a higher order. (As Lewis implies in Chapter 22 of Out of the Silent Planet, the name Oyarsa was suggested by Oyarses, the name given in Bernard Silvestris's Cosmographia to the governors of the celestial spheres. Bernard's word was almost certainly a corruption—or a deliberate alteration—of Greek οὐσιάρχης [ousiarches, "lords of being"], used with the same meaning in the Hermetic Asclepius.) The eldila resident on—actually, imprisoned in—Earth are "dark eldila", fallen angels or demons. The Oyarsa of Earth, the "Bent One", is Satan. Ransom later meets the Oyéresu of both Mars and Venus, who are described as being masculine (but not actually male) and feminine (but not actually female), respectively. The Oyéresu of other worlds have characteristics like those of the corresponding Classical gods for instance, the Oyarsa of Jupiter gives a feeling of merriment (joviality).
Hnau is a word in the Old Solar language which refers to "rational animals" such as Humans. In the book, the Old Solar speaker specifies that God is not hnau, and is unsure whether Eldila (immortal angelic beings) can be termed "hnau", deciding that if they are hnau, they are a different kind of hnau than Humans or Martians.
The term was adopted by some other people, including Lewis's friend J. R. R. Tolkien, who used the term in his (unpublished during his lifetime) The Notion Club Papers - distinguishing hnau from beings of pure spirit or spirits able to assume a body (which is not essential to their nature). Similarly, a character in James Blish's science fiction novel A Case of Conscience wonders whether a particular alien is a hnau, which he defines as having "a rational soul".
In recent times the term has been used by some philosophers, for example in Thomas I. White's "Is a Dolphin a Person?", where he asks if Dolphins are persons, and if such, if they can also be reckoned as hnau: that is sentient beings of the same level as humans.
Old Solar language Edit
According to the Space Trilogy's cosmology, the speech of all the inhabitants of the Field of Arbol is the Old Solar or Hlab-Eribol-ef-Cordi. Only Earth lost the language, due to the Bent One's influence. Old Solar can be likened to the Elvish languages invented by Lewis's friend, Tolkien. The grammar is little known, except for the plurals of nouns. The plurals of some words (hross, eldil) are simple, only adding a final -a or -i others (as for Oyarsa, sorn, hnakra), are quite complex broken plurals, adding an internal -é-, and adding or altering a final vowel (usually to -i or -u), and may also include internal metathesis (Oyéresu, séroni, hnéraki). It is also referred to as "the Great Tongue":
For this was the language spoken before the Fall and beyond the Moon and the meanings were not given to the syllables by chance, or skill, or long tradition, but truly inherent in them as the shape of the great Sun is inherent in the little waterdrop. This was Language herself, as she first sprang at Maleldil's bidding out of the molten quicksilver of the first star called Mercury on Earth, but Viritrilbia in Deep Heaven. 
Terms used throughout the trilogy Edit
- Eldil, pl. Eldila—an everlasting, rational, "multidimensional energy being" that is not organic an angel. Some act in the capacity of "Oyarsa" of a planet.
- Field of Arbol—the Solar System
- Glund or Glundandra—Jupiter
- hnau or 'nau—a rational being, capable of speech, intellect, and personhood, and containing a soul.
- handra—a planet or land
- Maleldil— the Christian God, described in Perelandra as having been incarnated as Jesus.
- Neruval—hapax legomenon in Perelandra and, from context,  apparently Uranus
- Oyarsa, pl. Oyéresu(Title)—Ruler of a planet, a higher-order angel, perhaps an arch-angel.
- Sulva—The Moon
- Thulcandra—Earth, literally "The Silent Planet"
Other written works Edit
The cosmology of all three books—in which the Oyéresu of Mars and Venus somewhat resemble the corresponding gods from classical mythology—derives from Lewis's interest in medieval beliefs. Lewis discusses these in his book The Discarded Image (published much later than the Ransom Trilogy). Lewis was intrigued with the ways medieval authors borrowed concepts from pre-Christian religion and science and attempted to reconcile them with Christianity, and with the lack of a clear distinction between natural and supernatural phenomena in medieval thought. The Space Trilogy also plays on themes in Lewis's essay "Religion and Rocketry", which argues that as long as humanity remains flawed and sinful, our exploration of other planets will tend to do them more harm than good. Furthermore, much of the substance of the argument between Ransom and Weston in Perelandra is found in Lewis's book Miracles. Links between Lewis's Space Trilogy and his other writings are discussed at great length in Michael Ward's Planet Narnia and in Kathryn Lindskoog's C.S. Lewis: Mere Christian. 
J.R.R. Tolkien was a friend and sometime mentor to Lewis. In That Hideous Strength, Lewis alludes several times to Tolkien's Atlantean civilization Numinor (spelt Númenor by Tolkien), saying in the foreword "Those who would like to learn further about Numinor and the True West must (alas!) await the publication of much that still exists only in the MSS. of my friend, Professor J. R. R. Tolkien." 
In December of 2018, Warner Bros. purchased full rights to adapt the novels into a film trilogy. Filming is currently in plan. [ citation needed ]
Flying Saucers and UFOs are Alien Spacecraft
A suggestion: try to stop using the term UFO. I know this is a tall order. UFO is part of our national vocabulary and is ingrained in our culture. Even on this website I use the term because it's easy to say and write quickly. But, whenever possible, try to use the term flying saucer or alien spacecraft instead. Here are some reasons why:
UFO originally meant Unconventional flying object, not unidentified flying object. The military has known since the 1940s that these were intelligently piloted craft. To confirm this, simply review the Air Force intelligence documents from 1958, which appear in the Government Information section.
The term flying saucer has been used in hundreds of government and military intelligence documents precisely because they are known to be flying, piloted craft. A change in mind-set is needed. It is not just a matter of semantics it is similar to the difference between referring to someone as a victim or a survivor.
If you saw what appeared to be a boat several miles out in the ocean, you would not say, "Hey, I see a UFO, an unidentified floating object." You would make the assumption it is an example of an intelligently piloted craft that we commonly call a boat. Whether you were actually right or wrong is beside the point. It may actually have been a whale or a buoy. However, you empowered yourself to make an intelligent assessment and committed to it. When you say this you are saying you have some idea of what you saw and people will generally take your assessment at face value.
However, when you say you saw a UFO, you are confirming in your own words that what you saw is unidentified you have no idea what you saw, or if you saw anything at all, so why should anybody listen?
Flying saucers are not like clouds just drifting by. They are more like cars on a freeway they contain "people" (alien beings) in them and they are on their way to or from a specific destination. Please spend some time thinking about this, since it is an important concept. When you fully embrace this idea you will begin to see the flying-saucer phenomenon in a new light, and some more of the pieces will begin to fall into place.
Commercial pilots report being paced by Alien saucers
The first reported modern-day sighting of flying saucers occurred on June 24, 1947. A private pilot, Kenneth Arnold, spotted nine disk-shaped objects flying in formation over the Cascade Mountains in the state of Washington . Based on this sighting the term flying saucers was born. The following July 29, 1947, Arnold saw approximately twenty-five more alien spacecraft that flew within four hundred yards of his plane. An official CIA account of Kenneth Arnold's sightings is included in the Government Documents section.
Keep in mind the year these sightings occurred: 1947. In 1947 flying craft of any kind, even airplanes, were rarely seen by citizens. In 1947 it is estimated that less than 1 percent of the American population had ever seen a helicopter. And, for all intents and purposes, there was no television.
Kenneth Arnold spotted these crescent disks in 1947
Sizes and Shapes of Flying Saucers
Besides the classic "saucer" shape of these alien craft, there are many other forms that have been seen by civilians and noted in military documents. Alien spacecraft sightings have also been reported in ancient texts as well as in the Bible. There are as many configurations of craft as there are shapes of cars and trucks on our planet. Here are some of the ones seen most often:
These come in different configurations and sizes. Some have small domes or cupolas on top, and some do not. The dome configuration can be rounded or square. These are known to be primarily scout ships and short-range research vehicles.
These vehicles are generally larger than saucers. They are known to be small mother ships containing eight to ten saucer-shaped craft. They are long and cylindrical with a taper at both ends thus the name.
Huge 'Cigar' craft release smaller flying saucers
These ships are huge many stretch over several miles along a single edge. These are the craft that were sighted over Belgium in the wave of sightings taking place there in 1989-1990. It is estimated that over 70 percent of the entire population of Belgium saw these craft firsthand, and as a result, Belgium is the only country that officially recognizes the existence of flying saucers.
Super-sized 'Triangle' ships are seen world wide
These craft are also gigantic. They differ somewhat from the triangle-shaped craft in that one arm of the boomerang ship is longer than the other. These are the sort of craft that have been seen and videotaped by thousands of citizens in Phoenix , Arizona in March and April 1997.
Very large craft, a thousand feet or more in length (picture a 70 story building on its side). These craft are not tapered. Many photographs of these have been taken. In photos they look just like a giant, hovering telephone pole on its side and don't look like a craft at all.
One of the most famous flying saucers of all time, the Roswell craft was not really shaped like a flying saucer. Researcher and forensic artist Bill McDonald has reconstructed the Roswell alien spacecraft from several eyewitness testimonies. Bill received confirmation from contacts he has within the U.S. intelligence community. It was McDonald's re-creation of the craft that the Testor Model Company used for their commercially sold scale model.
Roswell Craft hit by lightning
McDonald's intelligence agency sources have stated that Jack Northrup and Kelly Johnson, who were the founders of Northrop and Lockheed's "Skunk Works," had direct access to the data and configuration measurements of the Roswell spacecraft.1 It was said that this information was adapted and applied to the development of the X-33 and X-38 aerospace shuttle planes, NASA's space shuttles, the VentureStar, U.S. Stealth aircraft, TR-3 Black Manta.
The Roswell craft inspired a military vehicle that looks very much like the V-shaped Stealth aircraft the U.S. military built years later.
Other Characteristics of Flying Saucers
There are a few characteristics of flying saucers that are not generally known to the public at large. Although these characteristics are never depicted in the movies, you should know about them.
Flying saucers often wobble when they fly. It is very pronounced at lower speeds, giving the saucer a surreal look. It is often this characteristic which first draws the viewer's attention.
This wobble immediately distinguishes the flight of a flying saucer from that of an airplane. It was the wobble that attracted pilot Kenneth Arnold's attention to the first saucers, which he spotted in 1947.
When a saucer is caught on videotape, people often think the tape is fake because of the wobble. It is reminiscent of a model rocket wobbling on a string like in the old Buck Rogers movies. The wobble is thought to be caused by fluctuations of waves in the electromagnetic fields that the saucers use to overcome gravity. To imagine how it looks, think of a high-speed boat bouncing off the water as it moves forward.
Another characteristic of these alien craft is morphing that is, the shape of the saucer changes right before your eyes. Often a saucer will elongate and become a cigar-shaped craft. This transmutation effect has also been caught on videotape.
Jaime Maussan, a reporter and investigator for a show similar to our 60 Minutes in Mexico , has thousands of videotapes, all from different individuals, showing this morphing capability. Maussan has collected over five thousand videotapes of flying saucers from the citizens of Mexico , including many videos taken of the same craft shot at the same time from many different parts of Mexico City . In Mexico , Jaime Maussan is as well known and as well respected as Dan Rather or Peter Jennings.
Jaime Maussan has videotapes that show over fifty flying saucers at one time. They often hold themselves stationary while forming strange designs, like some kind of array of symbols in the sky. This isn't as dramatic as landing on the White House lawn, but it's pretty close.
In March 1998 Jaime told me, "Nobody in Mexico laughs at UFOs. Nobody. They are frequently around the volcano, which now has the strongest electromagnetic field in the world. There have been times when all the traffic in Mexico City was stopped, with millions of people standing outside their cars pointing to the skies. Yet, not one American newspaper has ever carried the story."2
Videotapes have also captured what have come to be known as "hyperspace jumps." This is when a flying saucer will jump a distance of fifteen to twenty miles in less than one-tenth of a second. Basically the craft is disappearing and reappearing in another location almost instantly. To the viewer, from a distance it looks like a "jump."
Different Names for Flying Saucers
Flying saucers are a world-wide phenomenon. They are called different things in different countries. In Mexico they are known as "flying plates." In China they are known as "flying woks." In many European countries they are known as "flying shields." This term originated in ancient times and continues in use today in Europe . For background on the origin of this term, see Section Two: UFOs In History.
Just as with the shapes, there is a wide variety of sizes. Most of the flying saucers we see are scout ships and are about thirty feet across. Their size is often deceiving because although there are larger disks, which are also seen, they are sometimes seen at a great distance and they appear smaller than they actually are.
As I mentioned earlier, some of these ships appearing in our atmosphere are huge! People regularly report seeing craft several miles across. A woman in Phoenix was driving with her two sons when a boomerang craft flew over them and hovered over the isolated stretch of highway where they were traveling. Out of fear, she accelerated to over eighty-five miles per hour. One of her teenage sons decided to time how long it would take them to get from beneath the craft. He started timing well after they had driven under the craft, and it took them just over two minutes at eighty-five miles an hour to get from under the wingspan of the ship. That makes the wingspan approximately three miles across!
Some of these large craft have been caught on film by our orbiting weather satellites. Judging by the grid on the camera lens and knowing the distance of the satellite's orbit, calculations show these craft to be hundreds of miles across! I have included more of these satellite photos in Section: “Watch The Skies.”
Satellite images routinely pick up Alien spacecraft
I don't know about you, but I have difficulty gauging sizes and distances. For instance, if someone says an object is three hundred feet away, I don't have a clue how far that is. On the state driving test, the words "stay a hundred feet behind the next vehicle" mean nothing to me. But, I do like football, so I can gauge a hundred yards pretty accurately. I also get a clear picture if someone tells me a building is ten stories tall. For some reason, it's easy for me to relate to.
Now I use the reference of a building to help me understand how big something is. For example, it is often reported that flying saucers are about fifty feet across. Translated, this means it was as long as a four-story building on its side. That's pretty big. Bigger than the words fifty feet seem to indicate to me.
We found several military sources who have seen craft six hundred feet across. That's a forty-five story building on its side. That's large!
Building sized spacecraft
Just a little teaser to whet your imagination. Aliens beings have the ability to "fold" space. I cover this in more detail later, but here's what this means in relation to space-craft size: Often, the inside of the saucer is much larger than it appears to be from the outside. People who have worked on recovered craft often recall doing a double-take when they first stick their heads inside of a flying saucer. They can't believe it can be that big inside and they pull their head out to look at the outside of the craft. They are in total disbelief. What appears to be a thirty-foot craft on the outside is three times that size on the inside.
The 15 Most Important Space Missions in History
For eons, humanity has dreamt of exploring the cosmos. Almost 75 years ago, we finally achieved that dream. Some space missions have revealed how far the human race can go, while others dragged us down to the depths of our sorrow. The crews and crafts involved in these remarkable space missions made great strides in exploring our universe, and they won't soon be forgotten.
➡ You think space is badass. So do we. Let's nerd out over it together.
On October 4, 1957, Sputnik I launched from the U.S.S.R.'s Baikonur Cosmodrome and entered Earth's orbit, becoming the first human-made object to enter space. The aluminum-alloy sphere orbited our planet 1,440 times over 21 days before losing its signal and, most importantly, sent the entire world into the Space Age. The Soviet mission shed light on the density of Earth's atmosphere and what made a satellite successful. Sputnik I remained in orbit until January 4, 1958, when it burned up reentering our atmosphere.
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space on April 12, 1961, when he circled the Earth in Vostok I. The history-making voyage only lasted 108 minutes before Gagarin ejected himself from the spacecraft and parachuted back to his home planet (this was part of the plan), but changed the way humans look up at the stars forever. Before launching Gagarin into the heavens, the U.S.S.R. performed a test mission using a prototype of the Vostok I along with a dog and man-size dummy.
Before Sally Ride, Mae Jemison and Christina Koch, there was Valentina Tereshkova. The 26-year-old Soviet cosmonaut became the first woman to visit space on June 16, 1963, when she embarked on a three-day mission aboard the Vostok 6 spacecraft. She completed a total of 41 orbits around Earth, cementing her place in history and inspiring generations of women astronauts for decades to come.
On July 14, 1965, Mariner 4 snapped the first ever images of another planet. During its journey, the spacecraft came within 6,118 miles of Mars, and revealed in stunning detail (for the time) sunken craters, rust-colored hills and ancient carved stream beds&mdasha signal that life might have once existed there. The grainy images captivated scientists and space enthusiasts alike and kickstarted a decades-long obsession with the Red Planet.
Four days after launching from Cape Kennedy in Florida, Neil Armstrong took "one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969, and became the first human to walk on the moon as part of the Apollo 11 mission. Less than 20 minutes later, Buzz Aldrin, who piloted the lunar module, joined his commander. The two explored the moon on foot for three hours while conducting experiments and collecting samples. After rejoining fellow astronaut Michael Collins, who also made the voyage, Armstrong and Aldrin returned to Earth on July 24.
The Soviet Venera missions highlighted the perils of Venus. Venera 7, the first mission to successfully land on another planet, illuminated the harsh and unforgiving world next door to us. The spacecraft didn't last long on the surface&mdashtry less than an hour &mdashbut it returned reams of data for scientists to chew on. Decades later, the 13th Venera mission snapped the first ever images (seen above) of the Venusian surface.
Apollo 13 launched without incident on April 11, 1970, but just 56 hours into the mission, things took a turn. Minutes after a live television broadcast in which Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Haise communicated with people back home, an explosion within the craft made it clear that the crew would not be exploring the Fra Mauro area on the moon, as was initially planned. Due to malfunctioning oxygen tanks, both the crew and everyone in ground control had to come up with numerous on-the-fly fixes to combat lack of power, heat, water, and excess carbon monoxide to get everyone back to Earth safely. Despite the odds, on April 17, they did.
Launched in 1977 along with its spacecraft sibling, Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is still going strong today. Though its primary mission was to explore Jupiter and Saturn&mdashthe craft discovered volcanoes on Jupiter's moon and new details about Saturn's rings&mdashVoyager 1 has gone above and beyond in its exploration . literally. Not only did it snap a photo of our entire solar system in 1990, but it crossed into interstellar space in 2012, becoming the first human-made probe to do so.
The 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program launched on January 28, 1986, and tragically ended in just 73 seconds. STS-51-L was the 10th mission to be conducted on the Challenger space shuttle, but a failed rocket booster led to the shuttle's disintegration and death of all seven crew members. The launch was scheduled to take place on the 22nd, but was repeatedly pushed back due to bad weather. The mission's goals were to observe Halley's Comet, track satellites, and have Christa McAuliffe, a teacher on board, provide lessons to children in classrooms back home.
The Hubble Space Telescope, the most advanced orbital observatory ever constructed at the time, launched for the cosmos on April 24, 1990. Since then, it has snapped breathtaking images of the universe's most distant galaxies (seen here in the famed Hubble Deep Field image), spectacular supernovae and our planetary neighbors. The Hubble Space Telescope, which will soon be joined by an illustrious cadre of new observatories like the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, reshaped our fundamental understanding of the universe and helped illuminate our place in it.
After departing Earth on December 4, 1996, Mars Pathfinder didn't reach its namesake until July 4, 1997. When the 23-pound Sojourner rover reached Mars, becoming the first to ever reach another planet, it explored the Ares Vallis area of the red planet and analyzed its atmosphere, climate, and geology. There were concerns about how to land safely on Mars, but a creative approach that surrounded the rover in airbags was successful. The mission brought in evidence suggesting that Mars once had flowing water and that the atmosphere is heated by the planet's surface. Sojourner made its final transmission in September, but by then it was already considered a great success.
After spending an astounding 20 years in space, the Cassini spacecraft and Huygens probe ended their mission on September 15, 2017. A collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, the craft gathered information on Jupiter during a flyby, flew between Saturn's rings, and studied its moons throughout a full seasonal period. The mission came to an end with a final entry into Saturn's atmosphere. This decision was made to protect the biological composition of the surrounding moons.
The first pieces of the International Space Station (ISS), one from Russia and the other from the United States, left Earth in the fall of 1998. The two were attached in space and added on to piece by piece until November 2, 2000, when the first crew arrived. On board the ISS, astronauts from all over the world continue to work on all sorts of experiments, including exploration of the effects microgravity has on the human body. In this test, they're the guinea pigs. Adjustments, both mechanical and diplomatic, have been required over time, yet the crew and politicians at home recently celebrated over 20 years of orbiting the Earth, and in 2018, legislation was approved to extend ISS operations through 2030.
On March 7, 2009, Kepler launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission was to "explore the structure and diversity of planetary systems." While the original Kepler's run came to an end in 2013, a second, K2, picked up where its predecessor left off in 2014. The mission was expected to last until 2018, but in August of that year, it was discovered to have fuel remaining. By May 2016, Kepler had already identified 1,284 new planets. Of that, only nine were considered to be in a habitable zone.
In December 2015, SpaceX successfully landed its Falcon 9 first stage back on Earth. The landing launched a new era in spaceflight, one that made the goal of reaching orbit a cheaper, sustainable effort accessible to the masses. Looking back, it's incredible to see how far the industry has come. On March 14, 2021, SpaceX launched a Falcon 9 first stage for the ninth time, setting a record that would have seemed inconceivable decades ago.
NASA recruits ‘alien hunters’ to find signs of life in outer space
US space agency NASA is recruiting volunteer “alien hunters” to spot new planets and “pursue a common goal of understanding our universe”.
NASA's InSight spacecraft has touched down on the red planet and is relaying images back down to Earth.
NASA's InSight spacecraft has touched down on the red planet and is relaying images back down to Earth.
TESS Image of a young Neptune-size world orbiting AU Microscopii, a nearby M dwarf star amid a disk of debris. Picture: NASA. Source:News Regional Media
US space agency NASA is recruiting “alien hunters” to find signs of life in images taken from planets in other solar systems in outer space.
Seeking volunteers from across the world, NASA has launched a citizen science project called Planet Patrol to detect new planets from millions of images collected by its computer system.
Since the 1990s, scientists have discovered more than 4200 exoplanets, which are worlds that orbit stars other than the Earth’s sun.
NASA wants to take advantage of interested people’s time to examine the different extraterrestrial environments, some of which may host life.
It is inviting volunteers to join the hunt for new exoplanets by examining images snapped by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which has been orbiting the Earth since 2018.
Planet Patrol will become a 𠇌ommunity pursuing the common goal of understanding the universe and our place in it,” NASA said.
It launched Planet Patrol on Zooniverse, earlier this week, and has already recruited more than 1,600 participants who have collectively delivered 100,000 individual classifications.
The program enables anyone with an internet connection to spot and classify likely exoplanets in images taken by TESS.
𠇌itizen science projects are a great way to engage our built-in, never-ending curiosity about the world we live in — be it our own planet or a planet a hundred light years away,”
NASA research scientist Veselin Kostov said.
NASA is recruiting “alien hunters” to find signs of life in images taken from planets in other solar systems. (Picture: I. Stephens/ ESA/Hubble/ AFP Source:AFP
The Cassini Huygens spacecraft has spent over a decade studying Saturn for NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). It has discovered that its moons Titan and Enceladus have .
The Cassini Huygens spacecraft has spent over a decade studying Saturn for NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). It has discovered that its moons Titan and Enceladus have some key conditions for supporting life.
He said the project launch was particularly welcome for people isolating during the COVID-19 pandemic.
TESS is designed to spot exoplanets as they pass in front of the stars they orbit, dimming the star’s brightness.
Once the exoplanet’s existence has been confirmed, scientists can then start to determine the planet’s basic properties and whether any type of life, including extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), could find it habitable.
The hundreds of thousands of pictures TESS takes each year are analysed by automated software.
But computers may accidentally detect an exoplanet when all the image shows is a dimming of light caused by a binary system containing two rather than one star, with one eclipsing the other.
“The most common impostors are eclipsing binary stars,” Kostov said.
Other false positives were caused by instruments or 𠇊strophysical noise” distorting the TESS images.
NASA artist's illustration of its TESS system launched in 2018 which has taken millions of images of exoplanets. Picture: NASA/AFP Source:AFP
TESS Image of a young Neptune-size world orbiting AU Microscopii, a nearby M dwarf star amid a disk of debris. Picture: NASA. Source:News Regional Media
Kostov said the human eye was much more reliable than automated processing.
“The human eye is very good at quickly and reliably spotting such image distortions,” he said.
Via the program on Zooniverse, Planet Patrol participants are guided through a process of evaluating the quality of TESS images.
They then must distinguish between potential false positives and bona-fide planet candidates.
“It’s an extremely rewarding and enjoyable experience for us and, hopefully, for them as well,” said Kostov.
“My hope is that the project sparks a continuous interest in exoplanets in particular and in astrophysics in general.”
Another project NASA is undertaking is to detect whether alien life really exists on these exoplanets.
Its researchers have turned to looking for the shadows of one of Earth’s most common multicellular life forms: trees.
Professor Chris Doughty, lead author of the landmark new study, said in a statement: rth has more than three trillion trees, and each casts shadows differently than inanimate objects.
“If you go outside at noon, almost all shadows will be from human objects or plants and there would be very few shadows at this time of day if there wasn’t multicellular life.”
The researchers suggest abundant upright photosynthetic multicellular life such as trees will cast shadows at high sun angles.
This, the researchers believe, will probably distinguish them from single cellular life.
As a result, space telescopes will observe the types of shadows cast which should theoretically determine whether there are similar life forms on exoplanets.