The Civil War started on the 12th of April, 1861 in Charleston Bay, South Carolina, when the Confederates opened fire on the Union-controlled Fort Sumter.
Why Fort Sumter?
After seven Southern states declared secession, South Carolina demanded that the United States Army abandon all of its facilities in the harbor of Charleston. Instead, Major Robert Anderson decided to move his command from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, which was a highly defensible fortress that controlled the entrance to Charleston Harbor. In return, South Carolina seized all U.S. property in Charleston, except for Fort Sumter and the situation turned into a bit of a siege, as the Union struggled to get any supplies or reinforcements past Confederate General Beauregard's batteries. Lincoln decided to send supply ships, and the Confederates responded with an ultimatum that Fort Sumter had to be evacuated immediately.
Major Anderson did not comply and the Confederates bombarded Fort Sumter. The Union was outgunned and forced to surrender, without any loss of life on either side. After this battle, both the South and the North supported further military action and Lincoln called on 75,000 volunteers to come help fight the rebels. This was the start of the Civil War.
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